A political system in which the royal power is not limited by a constitution.
The title of the heir presumptive to the French throne.
The Encyclopédie was a monumental work published from 1747 to 1766 under the direction of Diderot and d'Alembert, with the title Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
A philosophical movement that spread across Europe in the 18th century.
A style or category of subject chosen by an artist, such as a portrait or landscape painting.
An intaglio gemstone has an image carved into its surface. Intaglio was mainly used in the decoration of gold and silverware and to make seals. The term also refers to an image incised in the surface of any other material (wood, leather, etc.).
Pastels are made from finely ground mineral or organic pigments mixed with a binder (water, honey and gum arabic) to form a paste, and with a powdered substance (white clay, ceruse or lead white, chalk or talc) to give consistency and create different shades. The paste is cut into sticks that are ready for use when dry. Pastel is a dry art medium for use on primed and sanded textured paper; due to their fragility, the finished drawings need to be fixed.
The Rococo style of ornamentation became fashionable in the early 18th century and remained popular throughout the reign of Louis XV. It is characterized by an abundance of ornate whorls imitating plant tendrils and sea-shells.
From the early 18th century to the French Revolution, the Parisian “salons” —fashionable social gatherings—attracted writers, cultivated aristocrats and distinguished foreigners from all over Europe. Their influence as centers of cultural exchange was at its height in France and Europe in the years after 1750.
The frame on which a canvas is stretched for painting.
A technique of painting or decorating that uses various artistic means to create the illusion of real, three-dimensional objects or scenes. The term also refers to the art of producing such works.